Birth-control technologies have made the human reproductive decision-making process
more exact, but birth-control is largely negligible to the population analysis. Its primary benefit is to reduce the costs of recreational sex, especially for women. However, one reproductive technology with particularly important consequences to the economics of reproduction is surrogate motherhood. Limited to just our natural biological capacities, the most reproductively successful men have orders of magnitude more children than the most reproductively successful women. However, surrogate motherhood allows a woman to become almost as reproductively successful as a man can be. Of course, it is still more costly for a woman to be spectacularly reproductively successful than it is for a man, since surrogate mothers cost a great deal.
As surrogate motherhood becomes more common and normed, we should expect to see women engage in more risk-taking behavior. In particular, we should expect women to begin to take on more of the attributes that enable men as a class to be high-earners because there is the potential for greater reproductive success with the increased resources - an extremely wealthy woman might pay hundreds of surrogate mothers to propagate her genes far more than has ever been possible for a female in human history.